How to Do Accounting for Small Business: Basics of Accounting

Small-scale accounting is accomplished by keeping a detailed document of all revenue and expenses and then getting financial information from transactions in the business fibahub.

It is a vital task that assists small-scale entrepreneurs in managing and tracking their money efficiently, particularly in the early phases. Apart from keeping you informed about your company’s recent and current performance and financial performance, small accounting for business assists in creating invoices and processing payroll.

What is covered in this article:

How Do You Do Bookkeeping for a Small Business?

Analyzing Financial Transactions

The process of accounting begins with the analysis of financial transactions and adding the ones that relate to a business entity into the system of accounting. For instance, loans to satisfy personal needs aren’t part of the corporate documents.

The initial step in the accounting process is the creation of the source documents. A source document or a business paper is the foundation to record a transaction.

Journal Entries

The business transactions are documented in the journal (also called Books of Original Entry) in chronological order with the double-entry bookkeeping system. The journal entries are split into two accounts, namely credit and debit.

To simplify this process, accountants utilize a specific journal to track recurring transactions, such as sales, purchases, cash receipts, etc. The transactions not recorded in the journal are recorded within the standard journal.


A general ledger is a set of accounts that show the changes made to each account in light of previous transactions, as well as the current balances for each account. The Books of Final Entry also refer to it.

Unadjusted Trial Balance

The trial balance can be created to see whether the total debits match the full credit. The accounts are taken from the ledger and then placed in a statement. Balances in the credit and debit columns should be the same.

If not, the trial balance is contaminated with errors that the correction of entries must rectify. It’s essential to remember that mistakes could exist even if the credit balance is equal to debits, for example, errors due to double posting or the non-inclusion of entries.

Adjusting Entries

After each accounting cycle, an accountant has to make adjustments to correct the accounts that are presented within the financial statement. For example, a person may earn income; however, it is not recorded in the book.

Adjusting entries are created to allow for the accrual of income and expenses, depreciation allowances, deductions, deferrals, and prepayments.

Adjusted Trial Balance

After the adjusting entries have been completed after the adjusting entries are made, an adjusted trial balance has to be created. This will be used to verify whether the debits correspond to the credits once the adjustments are completed. This is the last step before starting the company’s financial statements.

Financial Statements

The financial statements that include an income statement, a statement of equity changes, a balance sheet statement of cash flow, and notes are the last products of the accounting system.

Closing Entries

To prepare the system for the upcoming accounting cycle accounts, temporary ones that are regularly monitored, such as the expense, income and withdrawal accounts, are shut down. Performances on the balance sheet, also known as permanent accounts, remain open for the following accounting cycle.

The final step of the accounting process is to create the post-closing balance to determine the equivalence of the credit and debit amounts following the closing entries that have been made. The trial balance comprises real accounts, but only temporary accounts are shut down at the end of this cycle.

How Do I Set up a Small Business Accounting System?

Open a Business Bank Account

When you begin a business, create an account with a bank that keeps your company’s finances distinct from yours.

Choosing an Accounting Method

When setting the accounting system for a small-sized business system, you must pick a method to record financial transactions. There are two main methods to record expenses and income, which are the cash basis as well as an accrual-based basis for accounting.


In the cash-basis accounting method, you track the income and expenses only when cash transactions occur. For instance, you can keep track of revenue from products only when the client is willing to pay for the item.

Accrual base

Although a cash basis might be more straightforward, many companies prefer the accrual-based accounting method to record transactions. In this way, you track income whenever you sell something and expenses when they are incurred. This applies regardless of whether you were given or received cash in exchange for the item or service. It is essential to use a double-entry accounting system and keep two entries for each transaction.

Recording Transactions

If you are a small-scale business owner, you have the choice of employing an accountant, making transactions manually, as well as using an accounting program to keep track of your business transactions.

Compile a Chart of Accounts

The chart of accounts is a list of all transactions in the business and is utilized to prepare statements, monitor the progress and identify transactions. These charts must be frequently updated to include different trades in the industry.

Find out the Terms of Payment

Through the nature and character of your company, it is possible to give credit to customers. Instead of collecting payment from the moment of purchase, you can opt to invoice them on an earlier date.

If you choose to offer credit to customers, you’ll need a consistent system for making the invoices and keeping them in your system.

Do You Need an Accountant for a Small Business?

If you’re a small-scale business owner, getting an accountant could save you lots of time and cost. Account Ease is Here. Accounting Professionals can assist small-scale entrepreneurs with the following tasks:

  • At the beginning of forming your company, An accountant can assist in writing your business plan.
  • We will advise you on your company’s organizational structure.
  • Assist you in obtaining business licenses, sales tax permits, and employment accounts.
  • Install your accounting software with a book of accounts chart if you don’t wish to pay for the services of a bookkeeper regularly.
  • Be aware of compliance and complicated sales tax questions.
  • Manage complex labor costs, including concerns about labor law and wage rates, which can sabotage even the most profitable companies.
  • Aid you in meeting the needs of licensing agencies or creditors.
  • Keep track of inventory by date purchased, stock numbers, purchase price, dates sold and sale prices.

Small-scale business owners who can’t afford to hire an expert might look into automating their minor business accounting procedures using one of the numerous cloud-based accounting software solutions.

These programs provide fundamental accounting information, including invoicing, payment and payroll. The software can help in maintaining accurate records and also create basic financial reports.

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